China: Recycled Packaging and Trademark Infringement, a Questionable Decision in the Tsingtao Beer Case

Back again in 2020, the famed Chinese brew enterprise Tsingtao Beer submitted an administrative criticism for trademark infringement versus a smaller Chinese competitor for the use of recycled Tsingtao beer bottles. The more compact brewery was filling legitimately recycled Tsingtao bottles with their have beer. The recycled bottles did not bear the Tsingtao labels and marks, which had been replaced by the label and trademarks of the smaller brewery. However, the words Tsingtao Beer, embossed on the bottlers’ neck, was even now visible when the recycled bottles had been commercialized. The circumstance was adjudicated in 2022 by the Weihai Marketplace Supervision and Administration Bureau of Shandong Province in favor of Tsingtao Brewery and has been picked as a model trademark enforcement scenario by the Condition Administration for Market Regulation.

Is this nonetheless a circumstance of trademark infringement? Is the use and perform of the terms Tsingtao Beer on the bottles’ neck a “trademark use”? Or should this be rather a circumstance of trade costume infringement beneath the Unfair Competition Regulation? And, why is this essential?

Trademark or Unfair Level of competition?

Let’s start out with answering the query of why it is critical for a appropriate holder in China to figure out regardless of whether this is a circumstance of trademark rather than trade gown infringement.

If this is a trademark infringement situation, the right holder can enforce its registered right by submitting a brief and affordable administrative continuing that will instantly stop the violation. Its load of proof will be constrained to gathering the proof of the act of sale of just one of the allegedly infringing bottles. Provided that administrative proceedings for the enforcement of emblems in China do not include harm statements, the appropriate holder will also be exempted from giving evidence of injury (i.e. its genuine losses or the illicit financial gain of the infringer).

If, alternatively, this have been a situation of trade costume infringement, the proper holder would have to file a civil lawsuit below the Unfair Levels of competition Law and establish: a) the notoriety of its merchandise packaging/decoration, b) the infringing act, and c) the damages. Though a trademark administrative method would finish in just a handful of times with a peremptory purchase to stop and desist the illicit use of the bottles and a fine for the infringer, an unfair competitors/trade dress lawsuit could very last for 12 months and would be additional expensive.

Tsingtao’s decision

Tsingtao, for noticeable strategic reasons, determined to file an administrative grievance with the territorially knowledgeable Market Supervision Administration (MSA) for trademark infringement. It was alleged that the act of filling and reselling beer on recycled bottles without the need of thoroughly covering the embossed words Tsingtao Beer on the bottles’ neck was triggering confusion amid the applicable end users about the product or service origin. In unique, Tsingtao alleged that such use of its registered trademark designed in the related users the impact that the little breweries’ beer and brand name was considerably related to Tsingtao Beer. The alleged infringer did not file any defense and as an alternative quickly stopped the sale of beer in the accused bottles.

The MSA Conclusion

The MSA in cost of the circumstance began by making an attempt to see if the facts of the scenario in shape in the acts of infringement featured by artwork. 57 of the Chinese Trademark regulation. The short article offers as follows:

Any of the adhering to acts shall be deemed as infringement of unique rights to use registered emblems:   

(1) use of a trademark identical to a registered trademark on the very same sort of commodities without licensing by the trademark registrant

(2) use of a trademark equivalent to a registered trademark on the exact same variety of commodities with no licensing by the trademark registrant, or use of a trademark similar or related to the registered trademark on very similar commodities which effortlessly will cause confusion

(3) sale of commodities which infringe on distinctive rights to use registered trademarks

(4) forgery or unauthorized producing of labels of other’s registered trademark or sale of cast or unauthorized labels of other’s registered trademark

(5) improve of a registered trademark without the need of the consent of the trademark registrant, and sale of commodities bearing the improved trademark in the market

(6) intentionally facilitating infringement of other’s exceptional legal rights to use logos, assisting many others in implementation of infringement of unique legal rights to use logos or

(7) causing harm to other’s unique legal rights to use registered emblems.”

Beneath which of the previously mentioned 7 functions of infringement does this scenario drop? For starters, the MSA identified regardless of whether the embossed text “Tsingtao Beer” on the bottles’ neck was a trademark use. It then regarded as whether or not the trademark correct of Tsingtao Brewery was exhausted. Finally, it subsumed the resulting facts under just one of the seven functions of trademark infringement established forth by artwork. 57 of the Trademark Regulation. Let us abide by the reasoning of the MSA with a important eye.

a) Is This a Circumstance of “Trademark Use”?

The to start with dilemma for the MSA was to determine no matter whether the embossed text “Tsingtao Beer” on the bottles’ neck is a trademark use, i.e., a use prone to give sign of the origin of the products to the appropriate consumers. The MSA concluded that this is a circumstance of use of the registered trademark on product packaging with the crystal clear purpose of figuring out the supply of the product or service. The MSA further more argued that: “if they (the text on the bottles’ neck) simply cannot be taken out or blocked, they can however be made use of as commercial logos to detect the resource of products (…). Thus, the original Tsingtao Beer and TSINGTAO logos on the alleged infringing products and solutions continue to played a role in distinguishing the supply of the goods, constituting trademark use.

A additional significant analysis of the specifics of the case, nevertheless, may well position us in a distinctive direction. For case in point, the authentic Tsingtao bottle was marketed with a really large label bearing all the typical and nicely acknowledged Tsingtao artwork and logos. In this context, the embossed Tsingtao Beer on the bottle’s neck had been marginal and seem to be a ornamental element relatively than a marker of origin. People will commonly depend on the central label to figure out the resource of the item. This hypothesis was not considered by the MSA and no objections had been lifted by the alleged infringer. The truth stays that the purpose of the embossed phrases in the unique Tsingtao bottle may possibly not be always found as a easy trademark use, but the MSA’s reasoning was quite simple and superficial on this stage.

b) Trademark Exhaustion

When it opted for “trademark use,” the MSA encountered a very first trouble. After the original bottle is legitimately offered on the industry, the purpose of the trademark will be realized and the trademark unique ideal will be “exhausted.” The new operator of the to start with primary bottle  has the appropriate to do with the bottle as he or she pleases. Primarily based on these premises, the MSA could have dismissed the grievance.

Even so, it discovered that in this scenario there was a special circumstance that evades the theory of trademark exhaustion: a “considerable modify in the articles of the commodity.” In accordance to the MSA, this sort of a adjust of commodity (the small brewer’s beer in its place of Tsingtao beer) will guide the appropriate buyers to confusion and “hinder the purpose of the trademark to distinguish the resource of the commodity.

But of what trademark function is the MSA chatting about? The bottle has labels and markings from the filler of the bottle! The user will be in no position to mistake that the beer arrives from that brewer! The filler of the bottle does not want to mislead the buyers into believing that the liquid inside of is a Tsingtao beer. He is providing his very own beer less than his very own label. The MSA disregarded these facts and centered only on the embossed marking on the bottles’ neck, and tells us that the user will think that the beer in that bottle will be mistaken for Tsingtao beer!

The reasoning of the MSA is extremely questionable. If we consider the info that: (a) the bottle carries a extra seen mark and label from the compact brewery, and (b) the Tsingtao Beer’s embossed mark is on the packaging of the beer by itself, there are superior explanations to argue that the use of the embossed mark is not a trademark use, and that this is much more a case of illegally using the popular packaging of yet another manufacturer to confuse individuals as controlled by artwork. 6 of the Unfair Competitiveness Regulation. This sort of provision shields the trade gown of a well known commodity.

The facts of this situation can indeed healthy into these provisions as properly and would keep away from wholly the situation of trademark exhaustion. We shall see this additional in particulars at the conclude of the put up.

c) Infringement Findings

On the above premises, the MSA concluded that there was infringement due to the chance of confusion, and notably, the hazard for the suitable people to “mistakenly imagine that the merchandise has a distinct link with Tsingtao brewery ….” Inevitably, the MSA subsumed this circumstance below art. 57.7 “resulting in hurt to other’s distinctive rights to use registered trademarks.

The conclusion is as flawed as the premises. Artwork. 57.7 involves the claimant to show the damage and the illicit use. Having said that, in the case process there is no point out of a concrete harm or a request to Tsingtao to deliver proof about it. It is apparent that the MSA, aware of the actuality than none of the prior 6 acts of infringement was befitting, chose the final just one, which offered a much more open definition of use, but unsuccessful to match the specifics to even the loosest of the will cause of motion.

It seems that the main of the MSA reasoning is that, as soon as it is assumed that the use of the words “Tsingtao Beer” on the bottles’ neck is a trademark use, the infringement exists for the sole fact that this can mislead the related people about a relationship involving the lesser brewer and Tsingtao Brewery. This is not a restricted summary. As revealed higher than, the identical facts appear to match the scenario of a trade costume infringement. Even the “user’s confusion” about a attainable relationship between enterprises is demanded in circumstance of trade dress violations and is not special to the acts of trademark infringement. Art. 6 of the Unfair Competition Legislation obviously presents that:

A business operator shall not accomplish any of the next perplexing acts that will enable men and women to mistake its products and solutions for yet another business’s products or consider particular relations exist involving its items and any business’s merchandise: (…) 1. unauthorized use of a mark that is similar or similar to the identify, packaging or decoration of one more business’s commodity, which has affect to a particular extent (…).


The argumentative line of the MSA in this scenario is not convincing. Citing many outdated regulations on rebottling and filling up of recycled bottles does not aid for the reason that all these norms concentration on the situation of the infringers’ filling originally labeled bottles with a sub-common and not primary beverage. These are common circumstances of counterfeiting of a trademark.

The existing circumstance is distinct. In this article the embossed “Tsingtao Beer” mark may possibly not be necessarily and immediately described as a trademark and its usage may not be as a trademark. There are as a lot of valid arguments to sustain that this emblem is a decorative factor of a well-known packaging and its misuse, these as in this scenario, can be noticed as an act of unfair opposition, aiming at causing confusion among the the relevant end users as offered by Artwork. 6 Unfair Levels of competition Legislation. The truth that the MSA made a decision to subsume this case less than art. 57.7 with out even bothering to outline and confirm the demanded “harm” is an additional telling indicator that this decision could have forced and stretched the genuine trademark law beyond its literal this means.

We can undoubtedly laud the intent of these kinds of training: giving a a lot more time and expense-efficient defense to packaging and logos. But it might be a final decision that would not stand a increased courtroom scrutiny. If there is a need to have for a superior defense of makes in these repackaging situations, and the Unfair Levels of competition legislation does not offer an great option, the way to resolve it is by both amending the latter regulation or the trademark law accordingly. In the current scenario the infringer determined to give in, pay back the fine and did not file an appeal. Subsequent time, a much more feisty defendant may attempt to problem this case regulation in advance of the Beijing IP Courtroom. If so, there might be a hurry conclusion to find this as a product situation!